Three years of Abraham Accords

Three years of Abraham Accords

News: This week marks 3 years since Abraham accords were signed and discusses the impact it has had in improving ties in Middle east, promoting business and peace and also benefits India has derived.

What is Abraham Accord?
• The Abraham Accords are bilateral agreements on Arab–Israeli normalization signed between Israel and the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain on September 15, 2020.
• The accords were mediated by the United States, and the official signing ceremony for the first iteration of the Abraham Accords was hosted by the Trump administration at the White House.
• As part of the agreements, both the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain recognized Israel’s sovereignty, enabling the establishment of full diplomatic relations. This marked the first instance of Israel establishing diplomatic relations with an Arab country since 1994, when the Israel– Jordan peace treaty came into effect.
• In December 2020, the Israel–Morocco normalization agreement was signed. In exchange for Morocco’s recognition of Israeli sovereignty, the United States recognized Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahar.
• On January 6, 2021, following up on the Israel–Sudan normalization agreement (signed in October 2020), the government of Sudan signed the “Abraham Accords Declaration” in Khartoum.

What is the significance of Abraham accords?
• It promotes stability in West Asia – Encourages people to people contact
• Regional and Multinational Cooperation - The accords have laid the foundation for expanded regional and multinational cooperation.
• Trade Cooperation - Trade between Israel and other West Asian countries increased 74% between 2021 and 2022. Tourism, mostly non-existent in the past, has skyrocketed. In 2021, visits from Israel to the UAE increased by 172%.
• The Prosperity Green & Blue agreement between Israel, the UAE, and Jordan determined that a solar field to supply 600 megawatts of electricity to Israel and a desalination plant in Israel would deliver 200 million cubic meters of water to Jordan.

Significance for India:
• It has led to substantial increase in the commercial collaborations between companies from the UAE, Israel, Bahrain, and the U.S., partnering with the Indian private sector.
• The vibrant Indian diaspora in the Gulf now has the convenience of direct flights between the UAE and Israel, as well as between Israel and Bahrain.
• Indian students are enjoying increased ease of travel, gaining improved access to universities and the opportunity to explore international study programmes.
• India’s engagement in the new “Quad” in the Middle East, bridging the Arab-Israeli rift, served as a nonideological engagement with the Middle East.
• The Abraham Accords made the I2U2 Group possible, and its primary focus will be on joint investments in critical areas such as water, energy, transportation, space, health, and food security.

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