Meningitis Vaccine

Meningitis Vaccine
Context: Nigeria has achieved a historic milestone with the introduction of a new 5-in-1 Men5CVmeningitis vaccine rollout. Meningitis, characterized by a severe infection or inflammation of the meninges—a trio of thin membranes covering the brain and spinal cord—can be triggered by various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites..

TYPE OF MENINGITISCausal AgentsPrevalence & TransmissionHealth RisksCommon SymptomsVaccination
BACTERIAL MENINGITISStreptococcus pneumoniaeAfrican Meningitis Belt in sub-Saharan AfricaHIV infectionNeck stiffness, fever, confusionVaccines available for: Meningococcus, Pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)
 Listeria monocytogenesHigh incidence of meningococcal and pneumococcal meningitisComplement deficiencyAltered mental status, headaches 
 Haemophilus influenzae ImmunosuppressionNausea, vomiting 
 Neisseria meningitidis Active or passive smokingSeizures, coma 
VIRAL MENINGITISHerpes simplex virus, HIV  Neurological deficits (e.g., hearing loss) 
FUNGAL MENINGITISCryptococcal meningitis  Cognitive impairment 

Men5CV Vaccine:
• Nigeria has achieved a historic milestone by introducing theMen5CV vaccine, making it the world\'s first country to adopt this highly effective vaccine against meningitis.
• The Men5CV vaccine, endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO), provides protection against five strains (A,C, W, Y, and X)of meningococcus bacteria with a single injection.
• These five strains are responsible for causing meningitis and blood poisoning, offering broader coverage compared to existingvaccines used across much of Africa, which primarily target the A strain only.
• Nigeria, located within Africa\'s meningitis hyper-endemic region known as the African Meningitis Belt, aims to contribute to WHO\'s objective of eradicating meningitis by 2030.
• The African Union Commission underscores the significance of school feeding programs as a means to enhance nutrition and academic performance among children in Africa.

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