News: The Steel Ministry is in the process of developing a comprehensive green steel policy that will cover the manufacturing process, necessary skill sets, and funding support, as part of a holistic decarbonization strategy.

• Green steel refers to the environmentally friendly production of steel with significantly reduced greenhouse gas emissions, potentially leading to cost savings and improved quality when compared to conventional methods.

High Coal Consumption in Blast Furnace:
o The steel manufacturing process, which involves blast furnaces, basic oxygen furnaces, and electric arc furnaces, represents a significant global source of carbon emissions, mainly due to the substantial consumption of coal and coke in blast furnace operations.
Steel Demand and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions:
o A study indicates that as steel demand is expected to increase throughout the 21st century, there is a strong motivation to explore low greenhouse gas emission alternatives for steel production.
Indias Steel Sector Emissions:
o Indias domestic steel industry contributes 12% of the countrys greenhouse gas emissions, with an emission intensity of 2.55 tonnes of CO2 per tonne of crude steel, exceeding the global average of 1.9 tonnes of CO2 per tonne.
Low-Carbon Steel Production Methods:
o Low-grade carbon production methods include:
o Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies.
o Utilization of Green or Blue hydrogen.
o Increased utilization of biomass.
o Integration of artificial iron units (AIUs) to reduce carbon emissions and produce higher-grade steel.

Global Initiatives: 
First Movers Coalition:
o The First Movers Coalition, initiated by the World Economic Forum, aims to drive the decarbonization of industrial sectors such as steel.
o The Coalition recently announced its expansion, with 55 companies and nine countries committed to sourcing a portion of their industrial materials and transportation needs from suppliers using near zero or zero-carbon solutions.
Industrial Deep Decarbonization Initiative (IDDI):
o The IDDI advocates for governments to disclose environmental data and prioritize the use of low-emission or near-zero emissions cement and steel in construction projects.
o Nine countries, including the U.S., have joined this initiative and are poised to declare their commitments.
SteelZero and ConcreteZero:
o The Climate Groups SteelZero and ConcreteZero initiatives are corporate partnerships involving 25 and 22 companies, respectively, committed to utilizing net-zero steel and low- or net-zero emission concrete (including cement). 
European Union:
o By 2030, the European Union is expected to host nearly 50 green and low-carbon steel projects, driven partly by policies such as the European Unions Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism.
o Hybrit, a project in Sweden, supplied Volvo with the first coal-free green steel, showcasing a shift towards environmentally friendly steel production.
o Additionally, H2 Green Steel is constructing a fossil fuel-free steel plant in Sweden, equipped with a sustainable hydrogen facility, exemplifying the commitment to sustainable steel production practices.
Indian Initiative:
• The Steel Ministry is developing a green steel policy, encompassing process definition, required skills, and funding, with a strong emphasis on achieving complete decarbonization.
• Thirteen task forces have already been established to address various aspects of green steel-making, including defining the scope of the initiative.
• Most recently, the 14th task force was formed to investigate the feasibility of incorporating biochar or biomass as alternatives in blast furnaces to reduce carbon emissions during steel manufacturing.
• India is actively exploring its own technology for pure hydrogen-based Direct Reduction of Iron (DRI), with the project report currently under review. Additionally, there are considerations for establishing a consortium-led pilot project for a hydrogen-based DRI facility.
• The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has allocated ₹455 crore to pilot the use of hydrogen in steelmaking, highlighting a significant investment in advancing sustainable steel production methods.

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