Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF)

Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF)

News: Recently, the University of Arizona hosted a symposium centered on the rights of indigenous peoples. The event delved into the anticipated effects of the Global Biodiversity Framework and the Forest (Conservation) Amendment Act of 2023 in India on various tribal communities.

About Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF):
• The Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) was adopted during the 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP15) to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity in December 2022.
• Its primary aim is to support the achievement of sustainable development goals and to build upon previous strategic plans.
• The GBF sets a bold path towards global harmony with nature by 2050.
• Upon adopting the GBF, all participating parties are committed to setting national targets for its implementation.
• The GBF, comprising 23 targets set for 2030 and four global goals for 2050, aims to preserve biodiversity for both current and future generations.
• These targets address reducing threats to biodiversity, meeting peoples needs sustainably through benefitsharing, and offering tools and solutions for implementation and mainstreaming.
• Unlike an international treaty, the GBF lacks legal binding on Parties.
• It does not enforce a mandatory system requiring parties to escalate their efforts at specific times.

Importance of GBF for India:
• About 84% of India’s national parks (89 out of a total of 106) were established in areas inhabited by indigenous peoples, and meeting the GBF targets could endanger their existence. Some examples are given below
• The proposal to upgrade the Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary in Rajasthan to a tiger reserve could impact 162 tribal villages located both inside and outside the sanctuary.
• Similarly, the expansion of the Nauradehi Sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh is expected to affect 62 villages, predominantly inhabited 
by tribal communities.
• In Assam, the June 2022 notification for the Barak Bhuban Wildlife Sanctuary threatens the livelihoods of Khasis, Dimasas, and 
other indigenous groups.
• The gazette notification claims the sanctuary is free from encroachment and denies any rights or concessions to individuals. However, the Khasis possess documents demonstrating their presence in the area since 1914.

What efforts to be done to protect the land of Tribals:
• While a global accord like the Kunming-Montreal GBF remains unalterable, India is urged to modernize its policies accordingly.
Recognizing Tribals as Guardians:
- Embrace the principle of free, prior, and informed consent as mandated by the Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act.
- Amend legislation to designate tribal communities as custodians of protected areas, honoring their historical role in preserving nature through their deep connection with forests and wildlife.
Establishing Protected Areas in Non-Tribal Regions:
- Given the establishment of tiger reserves in areas lacking tigers such as Sahyadri (Maharashtra), Satkosia (Odisha), Kamlang (Arunachal Pradesh), Kawal (Telangana), and Dampa (Mizoram), there is no impediment to establishing Protected Areas (PAs) in non-tribal regions.
Addressing Human Rights Violations in Protected Areas:
- India must take decisive action to address human rights violations within Protected Areas (PAs).
- Issues concerning access to education, healthcare, and housing for these communities cannot be solely entrusted to the Wildlife or Forest Department..

DICS Branches

Our Branches

DICS Ahmedabad


(Head Office)

Address : 506, 3rd EYE THREE (III), Opp. Induben Khakhrawala, Girish Cold Drink Cross Road, CG Road, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009.

Mobile : 8469231587 / 9586028957

Telephone : 079-40098991

E-mail: dics.upsc@gmail.com


Address: A-306, The Landmark, Urjanagar-1, Opp. Spicy Street, Kudasan – Por Road, Kudasan, Gandhinagar – 382421

Mobile : 9723832444 / 9723932444

E-mail: dics.gnagar@gmail.com

DICS Vadodara


Address: 2nd Floor, 9 Shivali Society, L&T Circle, opp. Ratri Bazar, Karelibaugh, Vadodara, 390018

Mobile : 9725692037 / 9725692054

E-mail: dics.vadodara@gmail.com

DICS Surat


Address: 403, Raj Victoria, Opp. Pal Walkway, Near Galaxy Circle, Pal, Surat-394510

Mobile : 8401031583 / 8401031587

E-mail: dics.surat@gmail.com

DICS New Delhi

New Delhi(In Association with Edge IAS)

Address: 57/17, 2nd Floor, Old Rajinder Nagar Market, Bada Bazaar Marg, Delhi-60

Mobile : 9104830862 / 9104830865

E-mail: dics.newdelhi@gmail.com