Parakram Diwas

Parakram Diwas

News: Parakram Diwas is celebrated on 23rd January on the occasion of birth anniversary of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose.

What is Parakram Diwas?
• Parakram Diwas, which translates to “Day of Valour”, is a national event celebrated in India on January 23 every year. It was officially announced by the Indian government in 2021 to commemorate the birth anniversary of the legendary freedom fighter, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose.
• The day is dedicated to honouring Netaji’s relentless pursuit of India’s freedom and his indomitable spirit and selfless service to the nation.
• The celebration of Parakram Diwas is intended to inspire the people of the country, especially the youth, to act with fortitude in the face of adversity, just as Netaji did.

Who was Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose?
• Born on January 23, 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa, to father Janaki Nath Bose (lawyer) and mother Prabhavati Devi.
• He was strongly influenced by Swami Vivekananda\'s teachings.
• In 1920 he qualified the Indian Civil Service competitive examination. However, Jallianwala Bagh massacre shocked Netaji and he returned to India quitting his apprenticeship midway.
• His political Guru was Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das.

Netaji’s role in India:
• After returning to India, Netaji came under the influence of Mahatma Gandhi and joined the Indian National Congress.
• Netaji along with J. Nehru were firm on their idea of India and were against the Dominion status that Nehru Report (1928) sought for. They asserted complete Independence for India.
• In 1931, he protested against the Gandhi-Irwin pact and opposed the suspension of Civil Disobedience movement especially when Bhagat Singh and his associates were hanged.
• On his Presidency at Haripura session (1938) he was vocal for the need to have a comprehensive scheme of industrial development under state-ownership and state-control.
• He emphasized on the Planning approach and was instrumental in setting up the National Planning Committee.

When did relations with INC deteriorate?
• In the backdrop of World War II, he brought a resolution to give British six months to hand India over to Indians or else face revolt.
• This was opposed by many following which Netaji resigned as president and formed a progressive group known as the Forward Bloc.

What was his contribution in establishing Indian National Army?
• He reached Japanese-controlled Singapore from Germany in July 1943, issued from there his famous call, ‘Delhi Chalo’, and announced the formation of the Azad Hind Government and the Indian National Armya on 21st October 1943.
• The INA was first formed under Mohan Singh and Japanese Major Iwaichi Fujiwara and comprised Indian prisoners of war of the British-Indian Army captured by Japan in the Malayan (present-day Malaysia) campaign and at Singapore.
• The INA was able to win back Rangoon, Imphal and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
• Netaji renamed Andaman and Nicobar (A&N) Island as Shaheed and Swaraj.
• However, defeat of Japan and Germany in World War II, forced INA to retreat.

Netaji’s ideological Divide with Gandhiji:
• Gandhi was willing to wait a long time for Independence, Bose wanted immediate action, if not immediate results.
• Gandhi was anti-materialistic and hostile to modern technology, Bose saw technology and mass production as essential to survival and dignity.
• Gandhi wanted a decentralized society and disliked the modern state while Bose wanted a strong central government and saw the modern state as the only solution to India’s problems.
• Bose did not subscribe to Gandhi’s dedication to non-violence.
• Despite tensions between the two, Bose was well aware of the significance of a leader like Gandhi.
• Bose was the first to call him the “father of the nation” during an address from the Azad Hind Radio from Singapore in July 1944.

Other important contributions:
• He edited newspaper “Forward” and started his own newspaper “Swaraj”
• He authored the book ‘The Indian Struggle’, which covered the country’s independence movement in the years 1920–1934.
• He worked for “Gender equality” by establishing All Women regiment named “The Rani Jhansi Regiment”
• He also promoted “Secularism” in INA through having common worship prayers and celebration of all religious festivals together.

• Bose was a pragmatic leader who wanted to work with Germany and Japan to destabilize the British.
• He had a gigantic personality and was ambitious and brave in his approach and his contributions to Indian independence cause are revered by all in India. 

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