India’s coal plants – Low SO2 emission reduction technology adopted

India’s coal plants – Low SO2 emission reduction technology adopted

News: An analysis by the Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air (CREA) reveals that less than 8% of India’s coal-based power plants have adopted the recommended SO2 emission reduction technology mandated by the MoEF&CC.

Key Findings:
• Only 16.5 GW of coal plants in India have installed Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) and Circulating Fluidised Bed Combustion (CFBC) boilers, equivalent to 5.9 GW.
• The analysis reveals that a significant 92% of the country’s coal power plants operate without FGDs.
• The indiscriminate extension of deadlines by MoEF&CC and CPCB, without monitoring progress, has contributed to the lack of emission control in coal-based electricity generation units.
• India’s installed energy generation capacity is 425 GW, with the thermal sector holding the majority share, including coal (48.6%), gas (5.9%), and lignite (1.6%). Diesel contributes minimally (<0.2%).

What are the technologies for Sulphur dioxide emissions reduction?
• Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD): This is a method to remove SO2 from flue gas after combustion. It involves the
addition of absorbents to remove up to 95% of sulphur dioxide from flue gas. Flue gas is emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels like coal, oil, natural gas, or wood for heat or power.
• Scrubber: This is a device installed in the exhaust system of an industrial plant to remove specific gases (like SO2) from the overall waste stream.
• Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC): CFBC Boiler is an eco-friendly power facility designed to minimize the release of pollutants like nitrogen oxide and sulphur oxide. It achieves this by simultaneously injecting air and lime during the burning process. Fluidization occurs when pressurized fluid (liquid or gas) passes through a medium, causing solid particles to behave like a fluid under specific conditions. This dynamic state change is known as fluidization.
• Switching to Lower Sulphur Fuels: This involves shifting fossil fuel plants to lower sulphur fuels.
• Improved Efficiency of Conversion of Fuel to Electricity: This would reduce pollutant emissions per unit of electricity generated

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