Horn of Africa

Horn of Africa

News: Recently, first ‘China-Horn of Africa Peace, Governance and Development Conference.’ was held.

What is The Horn of Africa?
• The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in Northeast Africa.
• Located on the easternmost part of the African mainland, it is the fourth largest peninsula in the world.
• It lies along the southern boundary of the Red Sea and extends hundreds of kilometres into the Guardafui Channel, Gulf of Aden, and Indian Ocean.
• The Horn of Africa is equidistant from the equator and the Tropic of Cancer.
• The Horn contains such diverse areas as the highlands of the Ethiopian Plateau, the Ogaden desert, and the Eritrean and Somalian coasts.
• The Horn of Africa denotes the region containing the countries of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia.

Recent Chinese projects in the region:

2035 Vision - Aims to transform health sector, alleviate povery
4 Resolutions - The Dakar Action Plan, China Africa Co- op Vision 2035, Sino African Declaration on CC, Declaration of the 8th Ministerial Conference of FOCAC
Donation of Vaccines to Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda, Somalia
Green Development, capacity building, people to people contact

Overview of some of China’s work in the region across different sectors:

• Fully funded African Union HQ in Addis Ababa
• Railway project connecting Mombasa-Nairobi
• A viable military hardware market in Ethiopia

Geostrategic Projects
• China’s first and only military base outside its mainland is in Djibouti.
• In 2022, China hinted its willingness to develop Eritrea’s coast which would connect to China’s investments in land-locked Ethiopia.

Financial Assistance
• Ethiopia, is one of the top five African recipients of Chinese investments, and also has a debt of almost USD 14 billion.
• China accounts for 67% of Kenya’s bilateral debt.
• China is also interested in minerals such as gold, iron-ore, precious stones, chemicals, oil and natural gas in Ethiopia. South Sudan, a source for petroleum products, has had continued Beijing investment in the industry since the latter’s initial entry in 1995.
China’s presence here is a cause of worry for India. It has direct bearing on India’s security and well-being and thus India must play a proactive role to the prevailing conditions and power dynamics in the Horn of Africa.

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