Higher Education in India


Higher Education in India

News: Recently, a 33-year-old Ad-hoc professor in Delhi University committed suicide which highlights the case of problems persistent in recruitment system in country’s higher education institutions.


In this context it is important to study about Higher education in India, government schemes to promote it and challenges faced.

Who is an ad-hoc professor?

Ad-hoc officers are teacher’s appointed in universities. Though, they are expected to perform the same duties as the permanent faculty, the ad-hoc lecturers are not eligible for benefits such as gratuity, pensions and medical allowances.

What comprises Higher education in India?

Higher education or the tertiary education, is an optional final stage of learning that occurs after completing secondary education in India. In simple words, education after Class 12th constitutes Higher education.

Importance of Higher education in India:

o It creates better job prospects, helps build valuable connections with outside world
o With better job prospects it leads to enhanced standard of living
o Personality development
o Higher education helps create future leaders through training in professional domains
o Technological advancement. Rise of startups, entrepreneurs and new age technologies.

What are the steps taken by Government to upgrade India’s higher education system?

The government has taken steps to improve research, financing, quality and to increase participation of women in Higher education institutes (HEIs) in India.

Financially backing the HEI’s

o Higher education financing Agency (HEFA) – A JV of Ministry of Education and Canara Banks, it leverages funds from market, donation, CSR activities which are used to finance improvement in infrastructure in top institutions.
o Institution of Eminence Scheme (IoE) – Selected institutions in public and private sector will be declared as IoE and receive 1000 crore in donation in next 5 years.

To improve Quality

o PARAMARSH scheme which mentors institutions seeking NAAC accreditation.
o Beginning of National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) which ranks higher education institutions in India to encourage institutes to compete against each other and improve growth prospects.
o Foreign Higher Education Institutes were recently given permission to setup their campuses in India. Australia’s Deakin University will be amongst first to join.

To Boost Digital education

o SWAYAM – India’s own MOOC platform which offers free online learning courses

To promote research and innovation

o IMPacting Research Innovation and Technology (IMPRINT) India – It is pan-IIT and IISc joint collaboration to develop a blueprint for research of immediate relevance to society requiring innovation, direct scientific research into identified areas, ensure higher funding support for research into these areas and measure outcomes of the research efforts with reference to the impact on the standard of living in rural/urban areas.
o Uchhatar Avishkar Yojana - promoting innovation of a higher order that directly impacts the needs of the Industry and thereby improves the competitive edge of Indian manufacturing.
o Impactful Policy Research in Social Science (IMPRESS) – To promote social science research in higher education institutions and to enable research to guide policy making.

Promoting higher education for Women

KIRAN scheme, Women Scientists Scheme, Consolidation of University research for innovation excellence in Women universities (CURIE) to enhance participation of women in STEM field.

What are major challenges faced by Higher education ecosystem in India?

Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER)

o It is 27.3 for age group 18-23 years based on 2011 population. In USA, the GER is 88.2%, China 49.1%.
o The NEP-2020 envisages Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) to reach GER of 50% by 2030. Inadequate Infrastructure
o Apart from Top educational institutes, most of colleges and universities in India lack basic facilities – Technical labs, libraries, hostels, research equipment’s.

Inefficient Human resource management

o According to data presented by Education ministry in Parliament this March, more than 6,000 teaching positions are currently vacant across the country’s central universities.
o Faculty shortages and high Student-to-faculty ration
o Inability of HEI’s to attract and retain well qualified teachers due to factors such as ad-hocism, lack of merit based career progression, poor teacher education institutions (TEIs)

Commercialization of Education

o Rise of private ownership and management of educational institutions
o Lack of focus on ethical and value-based education, lowered standards and quality of educations.

Regulatory issues

o Over-centralization and rigid bureaucratic strucutres of regulatory system
o Multiple regulatory institutions with overlapping roles and functions make system complex. Eg – UGC, AICTE

Way Forward

o The NEP 2020 has suggested reformative approach to address the challenges faced by HEI’s in India. The suggestions addresses issues at structural, regulatory levels and provide steps to promote equity and inclusion.
o It also underscores the need to curb commercialization of education and recommends promoting Indian languages in HEI’s. Suggestions of NEP 2020 need to be implemented in letter and spirit. 

DICS Branches

Our Branches

DICS Ahmedabad


(Head Office)

Address : 506, 3rd EYE THREE (III), Opp. Induben Khakhrawala, Girish Cold Drink Cross Road, CG Road, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009.

Mobile : 8469231587 / 9586028957

Telephone : 079-40098991

E-mail: dics.upsc@gmail.com


Address: A-306, The Landmark, Urjanagar-1, Opp. Spicy Street, Kudasan – Por Road, Kudasan, Gandhinagar – 382421

Mobile : 9723832444 / 9723932444

E-mail: dics.gnagar@gmail.com

DICS Vadodara


Address: 304, 305, 306, Aditviya Complex, Above Passport Seva Kendra, Near Delux Cross Road, Nizampura, Vadodara – 390002

Mobile : 9725692037 / 9725692054

E-mail: dics.vadodara@gmail.com

DICS Surat


Address: 403, Raj Victoria, Opp. Pal Walkway, Near Galaxy Circle, Pal, Surat-394510

Mobile : 8401031583 / 8401031587

E-mail: dics.surat@gmail.com

DICS New Delhi

New Delhi

Address: 53/1, Upper Ground floor, Near Popular juice, Old Rajinder nagar, New Delhi -60

Mobile : 9104830862 / 9104830865

E-mail: dics.newdelhi@gmail.com