Dr. M S Swaminathan and Green Revolution

Dr. M S Swaminathan and Green Revolution

News: Recently, Mankombu Sambasivan Swaminathan (MS Swaminathan) passed away. He played a crucial role in heralding the Green Revolution which helped India fight against Food Insecurity.

Important contribution:
• His efforts through Green Revolution led India out of Hunger trap.
• His research on crops enhanced crop productivity. He raised awareness about importance of sustainable agriculture.
• He developed dwarf variety of wheat, high yielding basmati rice and launched programs like ‘lab to land’
• He served as the head of the National Commission on Farmers and recommended fair minimum support prices for farmers’ crops.
• His leadership at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) led to advancements in rice cultivation, including C4 carbon fixation capabilities and highyielding Basmati rice.
• The over ₹1,800-crore Kuttanad Package, recommended by the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF), recommended declaring the wetland system a ‘Special Agricultural Zone,‘ protecting water spread areas, modernizing infrastructure, and encouraging short-duration paddy varieties.

What is Green Revolution?
• The Green Revolution refers to a transformative period that began in the 1960s, during which agriculture was converted into a modern industrial system through the adoption of technology. This included the use of high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, mechanised farm tools, irrigation facilities, pesticides, and fertilizers.
• The Green Revolution was initiated by agricultural scientist Norman Borlaug and spread globally till the late 1980s. In India, it was mainly led by M. S. Swaminathan and commenced in 1968, leading to an increase in food grain production, especially in Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh.

What are positive impacts of Green revolution in India?
• Increase in Agricultural Output: The introduction of high-yielding variety (HYV) seeds, modern agricultural practices, and the use of fertilizers led to a significant increase in agricultural output. In 1978– 1979, a tremendous increase in crop production led to a grain output of 131 million tones, making India one of the largest agricultural producers in the world.
• Food Security: The Green Revolution helped improve food security and reduce hunger by significantly increasing the production of food grains, particularly wheat and rice.
• Economic Sustainability: The Green Revolution allowed a decline in food costs across the globe, making food economically sustainable.
• Increase in Farmers’ Income: The movement helped to raise the incomes of farmers in India and improve their standard of living.
• Employment Opportunities: The Green Revolution provided employment to both agricultural and industrial workers.
• Attracted private investments, crop area expansion and crop variety offered resilience to challenging climatic conditions.

What are negative impact of Green revolution?
• Excessive focus on wheat, rice was at the cost of neglect towards cereals, pulses, oilseeds.
• Soil Degradation: The excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides led to soil erosion, loss of soil fertility, and soil toxicity.
• Water Shortages: Over-irrigation led to water logging and salinity problems. It also contributed to water shortages.
• In Green Revolution areas, medium and large farmers benefited the most while Small and marginal farmers couldn’t afford expensive inputs, exacerbating inequality.
• The Green Revolution altered social interactions, highlighting caste and class inequalities. Exploitative labour relations and disparities contributed to social violence, including inter-caste conflicts.
• Vulnerability to Pests: The lack of biodiversity in the croplands made crops more vulnerable to pests. 

DICS Branches

Our Branches

DICS Ahmedabad


(Head Office)

Address : 506, 3rd EYE THREE (III), Opp. Induben Khakhrawala, Girish Cold Drink Cross Road, CG Road, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009.

Mobile : 8469231587 / 9586028957

Telephone : 079-40098991

E-mail: dics.upsc@gmail.com


Address: A-306, The Landmark, Urjanagar-1, Opp. Spicy Street, Kudasan – Por Road, Kudasan, Gandhinagar – 382421

Mobile : 9723832444 / 9723932444

E-mail: dics.gnagar@gmail.com

DICS Vadodara


Address: 2nd Floor, 9 Shivali Society, L&T Circle, opp. Ratri Bazar, Karelibaugh, Vadodara, 390018

Mobile : 9725692037 / 9725692054

E-mail: dics.vadodara@gmail.com

DICS Surat


Address: 403, Raj Victoria, Opp. Pal Walkway, Near Galaxy Circle, Pal, Surat-394510

Mobile : 8401031583 / 8401031587

E-mail: dics.surat@gmail.com

DICS New Delhi

New Delhi(In Association with Edge IAS)

Address: 57/17, 2nd Floor, Old Rajinder Nagar Market, Bada Bazaar Marg, Delhi-60

Mobile : 9104830862 / 9104830865

E-mail: dics.newdelhi@gmail.com