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CVC report on Corruption
News: According to the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) latest annual report, it received a total of 1,15,203 corruption complaints against all category employees of the central government in 2022.
• Out of the total complaints, 85,437 have been disposed of and 29,766 are still pending.
• Highest number of corruption complaints were received against employees of the Union home ministry, followed by railways and banks.
What is Corruption?
• According to UN’s Global Programme against Corruption (GAPAC), corruption is ‘the abuse of power for private gain and includes thereby both the public & private sector and private Individual’.
Why is Corruption prevalent in India?
• The public administration and the political system are often opaque and unresponsive to the citizens’ demands and grievances.
• Failure of the judiciary to hold corrupt officials, particularly politicians, accountable. Excessive protection afforded to civil officials under Articles 311 of the constitution and the requirement to obtain government approval before bringing civil servants to justice.
• Factors such as population growth, urbanization, and economic development have increased the demand for public goods and services such as education, health, infrastructure. However, supply of these goods and services is often inadequate, inefficient, or unequal, creating a gap that can be exploited by corrupt intermediaries or officials.
• The Right to Information (RTI) Act, which is intended to promote transparency and accountability, has faced challenges in implementation, including delays and lack of response to RTI requests.
• According to Transparency International, 32% of Indians believed that it is acceptable for a business to pay a bribe to win contracts.
Impact of Corruption:
• Corruption reduces economic growth and development by lowering investment, productivity, efficiency and innovation.
• Corruption also increases the cost and risk of doing business, creates market distortions and inefficiencies, and discourages entrepreneurship and competition.
• Corruption can also exacerbate poverty, unemployment and environmental degradation.
• Corruption affects the social fabric of a society by increasing inequality, injustice, discrimination and social exclusion.
• Corruption also hampers the provision and quality of basic services such as health, education, water and sanitation, which are essential for human development and well-being.
• Corruption undermines the legitimacy and accountability of the government, erodes public trust and
confidence in the political system, and weakens the rule of law and democratic institutions.
• Corruption enables the capture of the state by powerful elites or interest groups who influence policies and
decisions for their own benefit.
On marginalized communities
• Corruption exacerbates poverty, inequality, and social exclusion, hindering their access to basic services such as healthcare, education, and sanitation.
• Corruption undermines the effectiveness of government schemes and programs designed to benefit the marginalized communities.
What are the steps taken to prevent corruption in India?
• The Right to Information Act, 2005, which empowers the citizens to seek information from public authorities and promotes transparency and accountability in governance.
• The Lokpal and Lokayukta Act, 2013, which establishes an independent ombudsman to inquire into allegations of corruption against public officials and politicians.
• The Prevention of Corruption (Amendment) Act, 2018, which enhances the punishment for corruption offences, criminalizes the act of giving bribe, and provides for the attachment and confiscation of property of corrupt public servants.
• The Central Vigilance Commission (CVC), which is the apex anti-corruption body that supervises and coordinates the vigilance activities of various ministries and departments, and also conducts awareness campaigns and preventive measures against corruption.