Context: On the event of World Environment Day, ISRO provided details of Thermal Infrared Imaging Satellite for High-resolution Natural Resource Assessment (TRISHNA) mission.

• The TRISHNA Mission is a collaborative endeavor between ISRO and the French National Centre for Space Studies (CNES).
• It is equipped with two primary payloads.
• The Thermal Infra-Red (TIR) payload, provided by CNES, features a four-channel long-wave infrared imaging sensor capable of high-resolution surface temperature and emissivity mapping.
• The Visible – Near Infra-Red – Short Wave Infra-Red (VNIR-SWIR) payload, developed by ISRO, includes seven spectral bands designed for detailed mapping of surface reflectance of VSWIR bands for generating important biophysical and radiation budget variables.
• It will operate in a sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 761 km.
• The mission is designed for a five-year operational life and will provide a spatial resolution of 57 metres for land and coastal areas and 1 km for oceanic and polar regions.
• The satellite will use a set of infrared sensors – developed by India and France in collaboration – to monitor the temperature.
• Objective: Detailed monitoring of the energy and water budgets of the continental biosphere for quantifying terrestrial water stress and water use and high-resolution observation of water quality and dynamics in coastal and inland waters.
• It will deliver high spatial and high temporal resolution monitoring of earth’s surface temperature, emissivity, biophysical and radiation variables for surface energy budgeting at regional to global scale.
• It helps assess urban heat islands, detect thermal anomalies linked to volcanic activity and geothermal resources, and precisely monitor snow-melt runoff and glacier dynamics.
• The mission will also provide valuable data on aerosol optical depth, atmospheric water vapor, and cloud cover.


• It will help to assess irrigation water use and enhance crop water productivity through efficient and sustainable water management practices and better micro-watershed management.
• It will track key indicators such as droughts, permafrost changes, and evapotranspiration rates and help in climate monitoring.
• Water quality monitoring will aid in detecting pollution in coastal and inland water bodies.
• It will help in identifying sub-marine groundwater discharge at the coastal fringes.
• It will support the detection of sub-surface fires and the assessment of geothermal resources.
• Cryosphere monitoring will evaluate snow cover and snow-melt patterns, contributing to improved hydrological models.
• The data provided data will contribute to several global initiatives, such as GEOGLAM, the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals and targets, and the Global Water Watch.

GEOGLAM (Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring Initiative)

• It was launched in June 2011 by the Group of Twenty (G20) Agriculture Ministers and reaffirmed in January 2017.
• It is an international program geared toward enhancing the use of Earth observations to strengthen decision making, action-taking, and policy in the realms of food security and sustainable agriculture.
• The GEOGLAM initiative forms part of the G20 Action Plan on Food Price Volatility.

Global Water Watch

• It is a data platform that provides free, globally accessible information on the amount of water stored in reservoirs and the water level and flow in major river systems around the world.
• It uses modern AI and Earth Observation (EO) algorithms to map dams and produce high-resolution spatiotemporal and granular information in near-real-time.
• It is a partnership between Deltares, World Resources Institute (WRI), and World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Other Indo-French collaborations to monitor Earth
• Megha-Tropiques
• Saral

World Environment Day

• It is celebrated annually on June 5 to raise awareness about environmental protection.
• Aim: To unite individuals worldwide, encouraging their active participation in safeguarding and revitalising the planet.
• Led by: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
• The United Nations General Assembly declared June 5 as World Environment Day during the Stockholm

Conference in 1972.

• World Environment Day was celebrated for the first time in 1973.
• Theme of 2024: Land restoration, desertification and drought resilience.
• Host (2024): The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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