Rabies

Rabies
 

News: Recently, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has launched the National Rabies Control Programme (NRCP) for prevention and control of Rabies.
 

Objectives of NRCP:
 Provision of rabies vaccine & rabies immunoglobulin through national free drug initiatives;
 Training on appropriate animal bite management, prevention and control of rabies, surveillance and intersectoral coordination;
 Strengthening surveillance of animal bites and rabies deaths reporting;
 Creating awareness about rabies prevention.

About Rabies:
 Rabies is a vaccine-preventable, zoonotic, viral disease.
 It is caused by a Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) virus that is present in the saliva of a rabid animal (dog, cat, monkey, etc).
 It is invariably transmitted following a bite of an infected animal that leads to deposition of the saliva and the virus in the wound.
 Once clinical symptoms appear, rabies is virtually 100% fatal. The death invariably occurs in four days to two weeks due to cardio-respiratory failure.
 In up to 99% of cases, domestic dogs are responsible for rabies virus transmission to humans. The incubation period varies from 2–3 months but may vary from 1 week to 1 year, or rarely even more.
 

Treatment and symptoms:
 Rabies can be prevented by vaccinating pets, staying away from wildlife, and seeking medical care after potential exposures before symptoms start.
 Rabies deaths in human are 100% preventable through prompt and appropriate medical care. Vaccinating dogs is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing rabies in people.
 The first symptoms of rabies may be similar to flu and may last for a few days, which includes - Fever, Headache, Nausea, Vomiting, Anxiety, Confusion, Hyperactivity, Difficulty swallowing, Excessive salivation, Hallucinations, Insomnia.
 

Statistics in India:
 India is endemic for rabies, and accounts for 36% of the world’s rabies deaths. True burden of rabies in India is not fully known; although as per available information, it causes 18,000-20, 000 deaths every year.
 About 30-60% of reported rabies cases and deaths in India occur in children under the age of 15 years as bites that occur in children often go unrecognized and unreported.

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