350th Anniversary of the Grand Coronation of Chhatrapati Shivaji

350th Anniversary of the Grand Coronation of Chhatrapati Shivaji

Context: The National Gallery of Modern Art (NGMA) is presenting an exhibition titled \'Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj: Celebration of the 350th Anniversary of the Great Coronation.\'

About Chhatrapati Shivaji :

• Founder of the Maratha Empire: Shivaji established the Maratha Empire and is celebrated for his remarkable leadership and
• Known for Bravery and Good Governance: He is renowned for his courage on the battlefield and his efficient, fair administrative
• Engagements with Various Powers:

o Mughal Empire: Shivaji had a complex relationship with the Mughal Empire, involving both conflict and strategic alliances.
o Sultanate of Golkonda: He engaged in interactions with the Sultanate of Golkonda, navigating both cooperation and confrontation.
o Sultanate of Bijapur: Shivaji frequently clashed with the Sultanate of Bijapur, one of his primary adversaries.
o European Colonial Powers: He also dealt with European colonial forces, balancing diplomacy and defense.

• Centralized Administration: His governance was marked by a centralized system where he served as the supreme authority.
• Ashtapradhan Council: Shivaji was assisted by the Ashtapradhan council, an advisory body composed of eight ministers, each overseeing different aspects of the administration.
• Revenue System Reforms:

o Abolition of the Jagirdari System: He replaced the feudal Jagirdari system with the Ryotwari system, where revenues were collected directly from the farmers.
o Land Rights Monitoring: Shivaji implemented measures to ensure proper monitoring and protection
of land rights, promoting agricultural productivity and justice for farmers.

Raigad Fort:

• Location and Early History:
o Situated about 25 km from Mahad in the Raigad district, Raigad is a hill fort initially known as Rairi.
o The fort was captured by Shivaji Maharaj from Chandra Rao More of Javli, who was under the dominion of the Adil shahi Sultanate, in 1656.

• Strategic Importance:
o By capturing the fort, Shivaji challenged the supremacy of the Adil shahi dynasty and gained strategic routes towards Konkan, aiding in the expansion of his power.
o The fort was renamed Raigad by Shivaji in 1662 and became his seat of government two years later.

• Significant Events:
o Shivaji’s coronation took place at Raigad Fort in 1674, where he assumed the title of Chhatrapati.
o The fort is also the place where Shivaji passed away in 1680, cementing its importance in Maratha history.


• Namesakes:
o The Indian Navy’s INS Shivaji and the UNESCO World Heritage Site Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) are named in his honor.
• Cultural Influence:
o In the 1890s, Bal Gangadhar Tilak initiated the Shivaji festival to inspire nationalism among young Maharashtrians by promoting Shivaji as a role model.
• Modern Honors:
o The Indian Navy’s new Ensign and the new design for Admirals’ shoulder pieces are inspired by Chhatrapati Shivaji’s legacy. 

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