Large Hadron Collider

Large Hadron Collider
 

News: Recently, The LHC (Large Hadron Collider) has undergone upgrades which will make it more accurate.
 

What is LHC?
 The LHC is the world’s largest science experiment that smashes tiny particles called hadrons together at really high speeds. It uses protons as the particles and has a long circular pipe where they’re accelerated.
 It is operated by CERN (European Organisation for Nuclear Research)
 The LHC is a circular pipe that is 27 km long and is located on the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. It consists of two D-shaped magnetic fields created by almost 9,600 magnets.
 LHC is expected to throw up evidence of “new physics” — or physics beyond the Standard Model of Particle Physics, which explains how the basic building blocks of matter interact, governed by four fundamental forces.
 

How does it work?
 Protons, which are subatomic particles made up of quarks and gluons, are accelerated inside the LHC using these magnets.
 Quarks and gluons are subatomic particles that make up protons and neutrons. Quarks come in six different 'flavors': up, down, charm, strange, top, and bottom. Gluons are particles that 'glue' quarks together inside protons and neutrons through the strong nuclear force.
 Protons are not the only particles accelerated in the LHC.
 By switching the direction of the magnetic field rapidly, protons can be accelerated through the beam pipe. Other components help to focus the particles and keep them from hitting the pipe's walls.
 The protons eventually move at 99.999999% of the speed of light.
 

Significance:
 At such high energies, the LHC can create conditions that existed only fractions of a second after the Big Bang.
 Discovery of Higgs boson or “God particle” during the first run; using data to look beyond Standard Model.
 It will help in further understanding of “dark matter”.
 The LHC also helps to test theories in particle physics, such as supersymmetry and extra dimensions.
 

Hadrons - Hadrons are subatomic particles that are made up of smaller particles called quarks. They are one of the two main types of particles that make up matter, the other being leptons.
Bosons - In particle physics, a boson is a type of subatomic particle that follows Bose-Einstein statistics, named after the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose. 
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