Understanding Black Hole and Gravitational Lensing

Understanding Black Hole and Gravitational Lensing

News: Astronomers have discovered an Ultramassive black hole using gravitational lensing.

What are Black Holes?
 Black holes are places in space so dense, with such immense gravity, that beyond a certain boundary called the “event horizon,” nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light can escape from it.
 They form at the end of some stars’ lives. When stars, which are around twenty times bigger than the sun exhaust all the energy, they can collapse in on themselves forming a black hole.
 The idea of a body so massive that even light could not escape was briefly proposed by astronomical pioneer and English clergyman John Michell in a letter published in November 1784.
 In 1915, Black holes was predicted by Einstein’s theory of relativity – although Einstein himself was skeptical that they actually existed. Einstein said that though his equations on theory of gravity indicated that such objects were theoretically possible, but they “do not exist in physical reality.”
 In 1974, Hawking for the first time predicted the existence of Hawking radiation which are released by black holes.

Which technique was used by researchers to discover Black holes?
 Researchers used a technique known as Gravitational lensing. This technique enabled them to closely examine how light is bent by a black hole inside galaxy hundreds of millions of light-years from Earth.
 Supercomputer simulations and images captured by the Hubble Space Telescope were also used to confirm the size of the black hole.
 The black hole recently discovered is roughly 30 billion times the mass of our Sun and is one of the biggest ever detected and on the upper limit of how large we believe black holes can theoretically become.
 Moreover, this new approach of gravitational lensing taken by the researchers could make it possible to study inactive black holes in distant galaxies, which is not currently possible with other existing techniques.

What is Gravitational Lensing?
 Gravitational lensing occurs when a massive celestial body such as a galaxy cluster causes a sufficient curvature of spacetime for the path of light around it to be visibly bent, as if by a lens. The body causing the light to curve is accordingly called a gravitational lens.
 According to Einstein’s general theory of relativity, time and space are fused together in a quantity known as spacetime. Within this theory, massive objects cause spacetime to curve, and gravity is simply the curvature of spacetime. As light travels through spacetime, the theory predicts that the path taken by the light will also be curved by an object’s mass. Gravitational lensing is a dramatic and observable example of the Einstein’s theory in action. 

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